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Diversity & Inclusion

Diversity among Executive Leaders: An Essence for Prosperity

By | Diversity & Inclusion, Healthcare Innovation | No Comments

Diversity in the workplace helps to spark creativity and innovation. A diverse set of experiences and opinions can offer a variety of solutions to business problems. All industries need diversity to bring forth new ideas that lead to innovation, but a lack of diversity among executive leaders is still a common problem across many fields.

A study conducted by Harvard Business School interviewed 24 CEOs from around the globe who positively advance diversity in their companies and corporate divisions. All 24 CEOs forcefully affirmed the benefits of diversity and defined it as “a source of creativity and innovation.” When employees with different backgrounds and experiences collaborate with one another, they can accomplish more than they would as individuals. The CEOs praised the remarkable benefits of promoting employee diversity, but they were also disappointed with the shortage of progress on diversity in the C-suite. According to a recent report, there are only 4 African-American CEOs at the nation’s 500 largest companies. A Forbes report last year indicated that only 4.2% of the Fortune 500 firms are led by female CEOs, and 28% have just one female director. Even worse, the inequality at the C-suite level has also promoted intolerance of leaders with diverse backgrounds. Andrea Jun, the CEO of the personal-care-products firm Avon, shared her experience that she is usually the only woman or Asian sitting around a table of senior executives, and people often assume she could not be the boss. Another similar example is shared by Ajay Banga, the CEO of MasterCard, “My passion for diversity comes from the fact that I myself am diverse. There have been a hundred times when I have felt different from other people in the room or in the business. I have a turban and a full beard, and I run a global company—that’s not common.” Executive leaders with diverse backgrounds can be treated unfairly, and their contributions can often be underappreciated. In the study, Harvard Business School also distinguished leadership styles between men and women. The conclusions of the study described women as less political, more collaborative, better listeners, more relationship-oriented and more empathetic and reasonable. Therefore, as George Halvorson, the CEO of the California-based managed-care consortium Kaiser Permanente, said, when dealing with some complex projects involving multiple layers, a collaborative leader is necessary and his experience shows that more often than not the leader turns out to be a woman. Thus, we have to admit that one certain type of executive leader is not able to handle the rapidly changing market, and executive leaders with diverse backgrounds can fulfill the demands with innovation and creativity.

In the end, it is important to embrace executive leaders with diverse backgrounds. They are the talents who can create a culture based on innovation and cooperation, and also have the courage to bring forth new ideas and break the routine.

To further explore the influence of diverse leadership, CHI is organizing the 7th annual Diversity, Inclusion, & Life Sciences Symposium on 6/15/17 in Chicago. The Symposium is the leading annual, collaborative event for life sciences and healthcare executives, physicians, HR professionals, clinical trial professionals and patients, entrepreneurs, patient groups, researchers, academics, and diversity, and inclusion advocates to discuss diversity and inclusion in healthcare. The symposium focuses on the latest trends, challenges, opportunities, and best practices for implementing strategies and tactics to make these industries more diverse and inclusive, as well as understand how to better serve diverse patient groups. Attendees will learn the newest insights and ideas, discuss practical solutions, and meet new industry and marketplace colleagues. See a video at http://www.snip.ly/fxln8. This year’s symposium will include topics such as the role of coaching and mentoring in executive success, diversity and inclusion in clinical trials and research, and expanding definitions of diversity. Please visit http://chisite.org/dilss/ for more info or to register.

 

References:

Connolly, Boris GroysbergKatherine, and Boris Groysberg and Robin Abrahams. “Great Leaders Who Make the Mix Work.” Harvard Business Review. N.p., 27 Oct. 2014. Web. 24 May 2017.

Vinjamuri, David. “Diversity In Advertising Is Good Marketing.” Forbes. Forbes Magazine, 20 Mar. 2017. Web. 01 June 2017.

Wallace, Gregory. “Only 5 Black CEOs at 500 Biggest Companies.” CNNMoney. Cable News Network, 29 Jan. 2015. Web. 01 June 2017.

Zarya, Valentina. “Female Fortune 500 CEOs Are Poised to Break This Record in 2017.” Female Fortune 500 CEOs Set to Break Records in 2017. Fortune, 22 Dec. 2016. Web. 01 June 2017.

 

 

 

Need for Diversity in Clinical Trials

By | Clinical Trials, Diversity & Inclusion, Drug Costs | No Comments

Clinical trials are essential to bringing new medicines to patients. An important aspect of clinical trials is to make sure that the drug is effective for a diverse group of people. Diversity in clinical trials has recently been a key issue. There is no comprehensive way of defining diversity, as it could include gender, race, ethnicity, sexual orientation, and more, depending on the dimension from which it is viewed. Unfortunately, many clinical trials lack diversity in representation.

A diverse nation like the United States has an assortment of populations, with White Americans forming the ethnic majority. Hispanic and Latino Americans amount to 16% of the population, making up the largest racial minority1. African Americans are the second largest racial minority, accounting for 12% of the population1. Adding to this is the international community which lands in the U.S in search of opportunities. Already diverse cities are becoming increasingly mixed with immigrants from Asia, Africa, and Latin America. The U.S. is a diverse country, so why do our clinical trials not reflect the same level of diversity?

Clinical trials are an essential part of drug development. These provide a base of evidence for evaluation of a drug. Each drug needs to be tested for its efficacy, ease of application, side effects, and many other factors before being launched into the market. The average drug developed by a major pharmaceutical company costs billions of dollars to develop. In general, the drugs are not specifically designed with every racial group in mind due to the cost of production. That is why clinical trials are an important tool to determine the drug’s effectiveness on the population as a whole. The trials are performed on a sample population and researchers try to prove its statistical significance on the entire population. Hence, it is very much essential for clinical trials to be diverse to represent the population. People from diverse cultures differ among factors such as their predisposition to diseases or the environment they are exposed to. To create awareness, the FDA announced 2016 as “The Year of Diversity in Clinical Trials.” Despite an increase in awareness, the current trend is unsatisfactory. According to the FDA, African Americans represent 12 % of the U.S. population, but only 7% of clinical trial participants. Additionally, Hispanics represent 16% of the U.S. population but only 1% percent of clinical trial participants2. In a country where minorities are estimated to outnumber white Americans by 2044, the inclusion of individuals of varied races, ethnicities, ages, gender, and sexual orientation in clinical trials can help to prevent disparities in the evaluation of potential new medicines2. Clinical trials ensure top quality drugs and diversity in clinical trials should be considered to provide better treatment.

The 7th Annual Diversity, Inclusion, and Life Sciences Symposium will discuss the trends, facts, insights, and best practices regarding diversity in clinical trials. Attendees will learn the newest insights and ideas, discuss practical solutions, and meet industry and marketplace colleagues. Please visit http://chisite.org/dilss/ for more info or to register.

 

  1. Source: Wikipedia
  2. Source: Center for Healthcare Innovation – DILSS 2016 Executive Summary

What Healthcare Diversity Looks Like in The 21st century

By | Clinical Trials, Diversity & Inclusion, Global Healthcare Trends, Patients | No Comments

Diversity is a key word in the healthcare system. It can be defined as the blending of different backgrounds, with representation across gender, race/ethnicity, generation, and sexual orientation. Diversity is undeniably one of the most important topics in today’s society. In fact, according to an article published in Becker’s Hospital Review, millennials are the most diverse generation in the U.S. Population [1]. This change has brought the demand for a better quality of life across every social aspect, such as healthcare[2].

Despite the focus on relatively high economic factors in our healthcare system, many issues on the social spectrum remain unaddressed. One of the issues that our healthcare system faces today is the lack of representation for our ever-growing, diverse, population. As stated in an article published in Modern Healthcare, the lack of true diversity among leaders in this industry has stayed consistent[3]. How consistent? Well, according to Kevin E. Lofton, CEO of Englewood, Colorado-based Catholic Health Initiatives, this has been an issue since he started his career back in 1978. The healthcare industry has done a poor job of adjusting to the rapid demographic changes in recent years.

According to a survey conducted in 2013 by the American Hospital Association’s Institute for Diversity, minority representation on healthcare boards across the nation stood at 14 percent [4]. Furthermore, the same survey reported that minorities represented 31 percent of patients nationally. This is an issue that needs to change in the next couple of years. In an article published by David Ferguson, he mentions that a lack of diverse leadership in the healthcare industry can present a cultural gulf that must be overcome if the industry plans on switching to patient-centered care[5]. Emphasizing the crucial importance of diversity is critical if we ever hope to have an adequate health care system that is inclusive and represents the diverse set of people living in this nation.

Change must start at the top of the executive pyramid. Why? Well, those at the top are the ones with the power to make decisions.  In addition, increasing the number of physicians of color can foster higher levels of patient satisfaction among underrepresented groups in the community[6]. Most importantly, it is key to let minority groups know that the resources are there for them to take initiative. This can only work if both healthcare providers and patients work together to bring much-needed change to a system as sophisticated as the healthcare industry.

We must look at different initiatives that in the long-term can foster a system where the gap between healthcare inequality is minimal or non-existent. These initiatives must produce a system that is not only inclusive but effective as well. Shedding light on this issue is a must among healthcare leaders since they become the voice of the underrepresented populations. In the end, it is important to push for change and create something meaningful in an industry where change is long overdue.

To further explore these diversity trends, CHI is organizing our 7th annual Diversity, Inclusion, & Life Sciences Symposium on 6/15/17 in Chicago. The Symposium is the leading annual, collaborative event for life sciences and healthcare executives, physicians, HR professionals, clinical trial professionals and patients, entrepreneurs, patient groups, researchers, academics, and diversity and inclusion advocates to discuss diversity and inclusion in healthcare. The symposium focuses on the latest trends, challenges, opportunities, and best practices for implementing strategies and tactics to make these industries more diverse and inclusive, as well as understand how to better serve diverse patient groups. Attendees will learn the newest insights and ideas, discuss practical solutions, and meet new industry and marketplace colleagues. See a video at http://www.snip.ly/fxln8. This year’s symposium will include topics such as the role of coaching and mentoring in executive success, diversity and inclusion in clinical trials and research, and expanding definitions of diversity. Please visit http://chisite.org/dilss/ for more info or to register. Register before 5/13 to receive early registration discount.

 

References

[1] Jayanthi A. The new look of diversity in healthcare: Where we are and where we’re headed. Becker’s Hospital Review. http://www.beckershospitalreview.com/hospital-management-administration/the-new-look-of-diversity-in-healthcare-where-we-are-and-where-we-re-headed.html. Accessed January 25, 2017.

 

[2] Dorning J. The U.S. Health Care System: An International Perspective. Department For Professional Employees. http://dpeaflcio.org/programs-publications/issue-fact-sheets/the-u-s-health-care-system-an-international-perspective/#_edn24. Accessed January 25, 2017.

 

[3] Lofton K. Need for more diversity in healthcare leadership represents a moral and business imperative. Modern Healthcare. http://www.modernhealthcare.com/article/20161119/MAGAZINE/311199945. Accessed January 25, 2017.

 

[4] Diversity and Disparities. Diversity Connection. http://www.diversityconnection.org/diversityconnection/leadership-conferences/diversity_disparities_Benchmark_study_hospitals_2013.pdf. Accessed January 25, 2017.

 

[5] Ferguson D. Diversity in healthcare leadership drives better patient outcomes and community connection. Fierce Healthcare. http://www.fiercehealthcare.com/healthcare/diversity-healthcare-leadership-drives-better-patient-outcomes-and-community-connection. Accessed January 25, 2017.

 

[6] King M. The importance of cultural diversity in healthcare | Brainwaves. The University of Vermont. https://learn.uvm.edu/blog-health/cultural-diversity-in-healthcare. Accessed January 25, 2017.

 

Lack of Diversity among Healthcare Providers Impacts Healthcare Disparities

By | Diversity & Inclusion, Health Insurance, Healthcare Access, Healthcare Providers, Patients | No Comments

The U.S. faces great changes in the 21st century.  High levels of immigration from Asia, Central, and South America have dramatically shifted U.S. demographics.  According to the U.S. Census survey, the U.S. may be a majority non-White nation by as early as 2043.  By 2060, the relative percentage of non-Hispanic Whites in the population is expected to decrease to just 43% from 63% in 2010, whereas the relative percentage of Hispanics will nearly double, from 17% in 2010 to a predicted 32% (1).  Despite the rapidly growing minority populations within the U.S., there remain relatively few minority healthcare providers, such as nurses, physicians, and technicians.  For example, as of 2013, 70% of physicians identified as White, while only 6.4% identified as Hispanic and 5.9% as African American (2).

 

The lack of diverse and culturally competent healthcare providers may adversely impact the efficacy and frequency with which this care is administered.  A patient’s language and culture dictate how they express and explain their symptoms, as well as the degree to which they are comfortable seeking medical assistance.  Patients and providers who understand one another’s core principles – especially with regards to medicine – and can communicate effectively have a better chance of achieving a better patient outcome (3).  When asked the question, “do you think that African American and Hispanic patients receive a lower quality of care, the same quality of care, or a better quality of care than White patients?”, A majority of African American patients answered lower, along with around 40% of Hispanic patients (4).  Even 25% of White patients felt that they received a higher quality of care than their minority counterparts (4).  Perhaps even more convincingly, as early as 2005, over 75% of physicians felt that minorities were receiving a lower level of care than White patients, and that figure has been steadily rising (4).  This is an alarming trend.  While these numbers do not necessarily indicate a systemic discrimination within the healthcare industry, it may show a mistrust and lack of communication between minority patients and the mostly White male dominated healthcare industry.

 

This mistrust and miscommunication can manifest itself in other ways, such as insurance coverage.  While Hispanic people make up a mere 17% of the U.S. population, they represent 33% of all uninsured Americans (4).  Lack of insurance coverage, borne of distrust for a largely White-dominated medical system only makes access to adequate care more difficult for minorities.  While the solutions to such endemic issues cannot be solved overnight, the first steps can be taken to rebuild trust between the healthcare industry and minorities, beginning with making provider diversity a priority to bridge the many cultural gaps spanning this great melting pot of a nation.

 

On June 22, 2016, the Center for Healthcare Innovation will be further exploring these issues at the 6th annual Diversity, Inclusion & Life Sciences Symposium, which is the leading annual, collaborative event for life sciences and healthcare executives, physicians, HR professionals, clinical trial professionals and patients, entrepreneurs, patient groups, researchers, academics, and diversity and inclusion advocates to discuss diversity and inclusion in healthcare. Please visit chisite.org/education/diversity-symposium/ for more information.

 

 

References

  1. U.S. Population Projections: 2012-2060 | George Washington University https://www.gwu.edu/~forcpgm/Ortman.pdf
  2. Diversity in the Physician Workforce: Facts and Figures 2014 | AAMC http://aamcdiversityfactsandfigures.org/section-ii-current-status-of-us-physician-workforce/#fig16
  3. Missing Persons: Minorities in the Health Professions | Sullivan Commission on Diversity in the Workforce, pgs. 13-27 http://health-equity.pitt.edu/40/1/Sullivan_Final_Report_000.pdf
  4. Eliminating Racial/Ethnic Disparities in Healthcare: What are the Options? | The Henry J. Kaiser Foundation http://kff.org/disparities-policy/issue-brief/eliminating-racialethnic-disparities-in-health-care-what/

What Changing U.S. Demographics Mean for Clinical Trials

By | Clinical Trials, Diversity & Inclusion, Healthcare Access, Informed Patient, Patients | No Comments

The Food and Drug Administration has declared a renewed focus for 2016 exploring diversity in clinical trials. [1] Data gathered from FDA shows that there is still a significant lack of patient diversity in clinical trials.  “While African-Americans/Blacks represent 12% of the total U.S. population, they comprise just 5% of clinical trial participants. Hispanics account for 16% of the total population but just 1% of trial participants.” [2]

 

As researchers aim to understand how a drug’s effectiveness can vary in different patient groups, it is important to consider how U.S. demographics have begun dramatically shifting. According to the U.S. Census Bureau’s latest projection “It is predicted that by 2043, the U.S. will be a majority non-white nation. [3] White Americans will have gone from comprising 85% of the U.S. population in 2012 to just 43%. Hispanic and African Americans/Blacks will have grown substantially over that period, together making up 45 percent of the population with Hispanics being one of the fastest growing groups making up 31%.”[4] Therefore the inclusion of minorities in clinical trials will only become more critical. To demonstrate the safety and effectiveness of a new treatment, healthcare industry leaders should ensure the inclusion of a diverse population in clinical trials. Underrepresentation of minorities can skew vital trial and treatment data.

 

Some causes for lack of diversity and inclusion in clinical trials stem from lack of trust in trials, lack of awareness of what trials are, and barriers to participation of minority population in trials. For example, based on the history of medical research in the Tuskegee study, an infamous clinical study conducted between 1932 and 1972 by the U.S. Public Health Service studying the natural progression of untreated syphilis in rural African-American men in Alabama under the guise of receiving free health care from the United States government, there is a fear of exploitation in medical research.[5] Second, there is often a lack of misunderstanding about the process of clinical trials. Third, there are barriers to participation or feasibility for minority populations to enroll in clinical trial.

 

To attempt solve these complex diversity and inclusion issues, it is critical to go beyond the current one-size fits all approach and raise awareness, build trust, and reach out to under-represented population. Increased diversity in the population pool of clinical trials might just even result in greater confidence in the results and benefits of drugs to the population.

 

The Center for Healthcare Innovation’s Diversity, Inclusion, & Life Sciences Symposium on June 22, 2016 will address these issues in-depth. The Symposium is the leading annual, collaborative event for life sciences and healthcare executives, physicians, HR professionals, clinical trial professionals and patients, entrepreneurs, patient groups, researchers, academics, and diversity and inclusion advocates to discuss diversity and inclusion in healthcare. Please visit chisite.org/education/diversity-symposium/ for more information.

 

 

References

  1. 2016: The Year of Diversity in Clinical Trials | FDA Voice. http://blogs.fda.gov/fdavoice/index.php/2016/01/2016-the-year-of-diversity-in-clinical-trials/.
  2. Bridging the Diversity Gap in Clinical Trials | Thought leadership and innovation for the Pharmaceutical Industry – EyeforPharma. http://social.eyeforpharma.com/clinical/bridging-diversity-gap-clinical-trials.
  3. Census: White majority in U.S. gone by 2043 – U.S. News. http://usnews.nbcnews.com/_news/2013/06/13/18934111-census-white-majority-in-us-gone-by-2043.
  4. A Study On The Changing Racial Makeup Of “The Next America.” http://www.huffingtonpost.com/2014/04/13/changing-racial-makeup-_n_5142462.html.
  5. https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Tuskegee_syphilis_experiment

 

Improving Access for LGBT Clinical Trial Initiatives

By | Clinical Trials, Diversity & Inclusion, Patients | No Comments

In early April of 2016, Washington State lawmakers passed a bill to improve health research for individuals of the Lesbian, Gay, Bisexual, and Transgender community. Since the state of Washington has a significant LGBT population (more than 173,000 LGBT individuals in Seattle alone), Washington State lawmakers felt it was time to include the LGBT community into patient-centered research initiatives. The legislation requires the National Institutes of Health to coordinate a research strategy that addresses the lack of minority patient populations in current clinical trials in the state of Washington, promoting a more inclusive health-research environment where the needs of the LGBT community are specifically assessed in different clinical trial initiatives.

 

The importance of inclusive legislation in regards to clinical trial participants cannot be understated. A large percentage of clinical trials are failing to meet benchmarks necessary to represent patient populations as a whole. In fact, for clinical trials across the United States, it was determined that less than two percent of trials funded by the National Cancer Institute reached the benchmarks the NIH has set for including minority participants. By excluding minority populations from clinical trials, the health of LGBT members, as well as the health of men and women of color, are put at risk.

 

While Washington State has passed legislation to require inclusive clinical trials for LGBT members, the vast majority of the U.S. has not seen a similar progression. To accurately represent the U.S. patient population, both the federal government and state governments should make it a priority to pass legislation that requires LGBT member participation in clinical trials. Other state governments and the federal government could utilize the bill passed in Washington State as a model to catalyze bipartisan collaboration between the NIH and the minority populations across the nation. Diversity in clinical trials is not just a necessity for the LGBT population, but it is also a necessity for men and women of color and expecting mothers. Legislation is necessary to ensure the validity of clinical trial findings; clinical trials must represent patient populations in their entire diverse nature. The state of Washington has taken a step in the right direction towards promoting more inclusive clinical trials, will the rest of the nation follow suit?

 

The Center for Healthcare Innovation’s Diversity, Inclusion, & Life Sciences Symposium on June 22, 2016 will address these issues in-depth. The Symposium is the leading annual, collaborative event for life sciences and healthcare executives, physicians, HR professionals, clinical trial professionals and patients, entrepreneurs, patient groups, researchers, academics, and diversity and inclusion advocates to discuss diversity and inclusion in healthcare. Please visit chisite.org/education/diversity-symposium/ for more information.

 

 

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http://www.bizjournals.com/seattle/blog/health-care-inc/2016/04/washington-state-lawmaker-pushes-bill-to-improve.html

 

The Urgency in Increasing Diversity in Clinical Trials

By | Clinical Trials, Diversity & Inclusion, Health Insurance, Healthcare Access, Healthcare Quality, Patients | No Comments

 

The Food and Drug Administration (FDA), the key regulatory authority in bringing new drugs to the market, must balance between introducing life-saving treatments to people who need them as soon as possible and ensuring that these drugs have been thoroughly tested and are safe for the general population. A drug must undergo extensive testing in clinical trials before it gets approved as both safe and effective. These trials document how well the treatment works on individuals and also of the likelihood of the occurrence of severe side effects.1 The FDA has programs to accelerate the usually rigorous process needed to test drugs that are the first proven treatment of an ailment or have a significant advantage over already approved drugs.2

Often clinical trials fail to achieve adequate representation for minorities. African Americans represent 12% and Hispanics represent 16% of the U.S. population, but are only represented as 5% and 1% of clinical trial participants, respectively.3 Caucasians are still overly represented in clinical trials.4 The FDA and National Institute of Health (NIH) must urgently address this situation.

Significant genetic variations in various ethnic groups may cause different reactions to certain treatments. This difference puts people at risk as certain treatments’ side effects affect various groups differently. Differences in individuals’ genetic codes can alter the effectiveness of drugs as genes affect how a drug is metabolized and how an individual responds to a drug.5 A recent study on anti-HIV drugs revealed that genetic differences could render drugs completely ineffective in patients.6 These genetic differences can differ between individuals of difference races and/or ethnicities.5 Thus it makes difficult for the physician to determine if the drug will be effective for their minority patients if minorities are not tested thoroughly with that drug in the clinical trials.

One of the reasons as to why there is a lack of minority representation is mistrust of the established medical system. This is most notably seen with the infamous Tuskegee Syphilis Study in which physicians knowingly withheld treatment for African Americans infected with syphilis.7 Physicians’ bias also plays a role in the low amount of minority participants in trials. Physicians combine prior experiences treating patients of similar race, age, gender, and socioeconomic status into a stereotype in how to treat their current patients.8 Physicians use this bias to determine which patients to recommend for clinical trials. A study determined that physicians believe African Americans are two-thirds as likely to adhere to a clinical trial regimen compared to their Caucasian counterparts.9 In addition, minority populations have historically had poor access to healthcare. Minorities are less likely than Caucasians to have access to health insurance, a requirement for some Phase III clinical trials. This lack of insurance restricts many minorities to only receive health care in emergency rooms and unable to participate in trials.10

These and other obstacles prevent accurate minority representation in clinical trials need to be addressed and solved. The NIH Revitalization Act of 1993 by Congress meant to solve this problem by mandating women and minority representation in clinical trials, but the results are not promising as the proportion of minorities in clinical trials is still significantly lower than the proportion of minorities in the United States.11 Thus, before different methods other than passing acts in Congress will be implemented, minorities will continue to be at risk with their treatments.

References

  1. “Clinical Trials: MedlinePlus.” S National Library of Medicine. U.S. National Library of Medicine, 21 July 2015. Web. 5 Aug. 2015.”U.S. Food and Drug Administration.”
  2. Fast Track, Breakthrough Therapy, Accelerated Approval, Priority Review. 18 Sept. 2014. Web. 4 Aug. 2015.
  3. “U.S. Food and Drug Administration.” Clinical Trials Shed Light on Minority Health. 1 Apr. 2015. Web. 4 Aug. 2015.
  4. Culp-Ressler, T. “There Are Too Many White People In Clinical Trials, And It’s A Bigger Problem Than You Think.” ThinkProgress RSS. 4 Apr. 2014. Web. 4 Aug. 2015.
  5. Bradford, L. DiAnne. “Race, Genetics, Metabolism: Drug Therapy and Clinical Trials – MIWatch.” Race, Genetics, Metabolism: Drug Therapy and Clinical Trials – MIWatch. MIWatch, 10 Apr. 2008. Web. 18 Aug. 2015.
  6. “New Evidence That Genetic Differences May Help Explain Inconsistent Effectiveness Of Anti-Hiv Drug.” John Hopkins Medicine. 15 July 2015. Web. 4 Aug. 2015.
  7. Corbie-Smith, G., Thomas, S.B., Williams, M.V., Moody-Ayers, S.(1999) Attitudes and beliefs of African Americans toward participation in medical research.  Gen. Intern. Med.14, 537–546.
  8. Smedley, B.D., Stith, A.Y., Nelson, A.R., editors. ,Unequal Treatment: Confronting Racial and Ethnic Disparities in Health Care. Washington, DC: National Academy of Sciences; 2003.
  9. van Ryn, M., Burke, J.(2000) The effect of patient race and socio-economic status on physicians’ perceptions of patients.  Sci. Med. 50, 813–828.
  10. Regenstein, M., Huang, J.Stresses to the Safety Net: The Public Hospital Perspective. Washington, DC: Kaiser Family Foundation; 2005.
  11. Chen, M.S., Lara, P.N., Dang, J.H. T., Paterniti, D.A. and Kelly, K. (2014) Twenty years post-NIH Revitalization Act: Enhancing minority participation in clinical trials (EMPaCT): Laying the groundwork for improving minority clinical trial accrual. Cancer 120, 1091–1096.

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